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Bi Bo
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Bi Bo (Fructus Piperis Longi)——Xin Xiu Ben Cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica)

  1. Bi Bo
  2. 蓽茇
  3. Fructus Piperis Longi
  4. Long Pepper
  5. 荜拨

The Processing of 荜茇


The nearly mature fruit and spike of Piper longum L.


Guangdong and Yunnan provinces in China.


Collected from September to October when the spike turns black.

The true smell and taste

Specially fragrant, pungent.

Best quality

Big and hard, yellow-brownish to black-brownish, less stem with thick fragrance.



The Effect of 荜茇


Pungent, hot; spleen and large intestine meridians entered.


Warm middle energizer to alleviate pain and arrest vomiting.


A. Stomach cold and abdominal pain

It is good at warming stomach, dispersing cold to alleviate pain. For gastro-abdominal cold pain due to congealing cold, it can be used alone or combined with other middle-energizer-warming analgesic. For instance it is combined with Gan Jiang, Gao Liang Jiang and Rou Gui in Da Yi Han Wan from Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang.

B. Vomiting, hiccup and diarrhea

It has the actions of warming spleen and stomach to arrest vomiting and check diarrhea. For vomiting due to stomach cold, it can be ground into powder alone for oral use with conjee, or combined with other stomach-warming and vomiting-arresting herbs. For instance it is combined with Gan Jiang and Hou Po in Bi Bo Wan from Sheng Ji Zong Lu. For abdominal pain and diarrhea due to deficiency-cold type, it should be combined with the qi-tonifying and spleen-invigorating, middle-energizer-warming and diarrhea-checking herbs. For instance it is
combined with Gan Jiang, Bai Zhu and Rou Dou Kou in Bi Bo San from Sheng Ji Zong Lu.

In addition, for toothache due to dental caries, it can be ground into powder with Hu Jiao for local application.

Dosage and Administrations

Decoct l.5~3 g. Proper dosage is for external application.