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Basic conception

  • Ba Gang:the eight syndromes;
  • Based on four TCM diagnosis(naming inspection, auscultation,interrogation and palpation), the analysis on categories,positions and properties of the diseases for conclusion the diseases into the eight syndromes is known as Ba Gang Bian Zheng.

Ba gang bian zheng(The eight syndrome divisions)

Biao(Surface) and Li(Inner)

Biao here means the sickness position is at the surface of human body, like skin, flesh and meridians, while Li means the disease is within human body as the five-zang organs and the six fu-organs. Under normal conditions, Biao diseases are easier to cure than the Li ones.

Identification of Biao and Li syndromes

  • Biao:short course of disease, having fever and avoiding cold,normal tongue, floating pulse;
  • Li:long course of disease, having fever only or no fever,abnormal tongue expression, deep pulse.

Han(cold) and Re(hot)

Han means the body has experienced cold outside or yang qi is sufficient within the body, showing weakening of functional activities. Clinical manifestation:chilly, tastelessness in the mouth, pale, cold limbs, loose stool, tongue coatig turning white and slow pulse. Subordinate classifications have Biao Han(Surface cold), Li Han(inner cold), Xu Han(deficiency cold), Shi Han(excess cold).

Re means the body has experienced hot whether and heat, or inner excess yang and deficiency yin in body. Clinical manifestation:Having fever however willing to drink cold water and being exposed to colder surrounding, flushing and eyes red, dysphoric, Sputum or yellow viscous, dark urine, bound stool, rapid pulse and so on. Subordinate classifications are excess heat and deficiency cold.

Xu(deficient) and Shi(excess)

Xu syndrome: It refers to deficiency of healthy qi and declining functions of zang fu organs.

Subordinate classification:

  1. Blood deficiency: The storage of blood is not enough that it can not take its course to nourishing the zang fu organs, meridians, tissues, organs.

Clinical manifestation:pale or yellow facial complexion, light lip color, dizzy, palpation, insomnia, numbness of teh extremities.

  1. Qi deficiency: Certain organ decays leading to lusterless complexion
    , few words, laziness to speak, low voices, tired and mustiness, weak pulse.

3.Yin deficiency: Fluid in human body with yin properties lacks, showing manifestations as: hectic fever, night sweat, dry throat, feverish palms and soles, yellow and short urine, red
tongue with less coating, rapid pulse and so on.

4.Yang deficiency: The body is cold, pale and tired; spontaneous sweating; tastelessness in the mouth and not willing to drink;clear abundant urine;pale tongue with little coating, weak pulse.

Identification of Shi and Xu syndrome:

Xu(deficient)syndrome:long course of disease;weak constitution; despired and tired, aziness to speak;silently pain, like being pressed; clear and abundent urine;thin sloppy stool; ;light tongue colour,less coating;weak pulse.

Shi(excess)syndrome:short course of disease, strong constitution, excited and loud voice;painful and dislike being pressed on belly;short urine and bound stool;thick tongue with much coating on it;strong pulse.

Yin and yang

Yin and yang

All the syndromes are be concluded into yin and yang. Surface, hot and excess syndromes belong to yang while inner, cold and deficiency syndromes belong to yin.

  • Yin syndrome:Most common manifestations are:Dispirited, pale, fear of cold, clod limbs, shortness of breath, voice low, not thirsty, loose stool, clear and abundant urine, thick tongue coating, weak pulse.

  • Yang syndrome: Body reaction as hot body and red face, irritable, high and powerful voice, thirsty and always willing to drink, breathe quickly, constipation, short and red urine, red tongue, yellow tongue coating, strong pulse, etc.

Wang yin(Yin depletion syndrome) and wang yang(Yang depletion syndrome)

Etiology:(Yin fluid or yang qi vanish quickly):

  • Fever, sweat or sweating too much;
  • Severe vomiting;
  • Excessive blood loss.
  1. Yin depletion syndrome: refers to yin fluid drains or lost in the body. Clinical manifestations: sticky sweat, shortness of breath, fever, warm limbs, dysphoric, addicted to cold drinks, flushed face, dry tongue, rapid but weak pulse.
  1. Yang depletion syndrome: serious depletion of yang Qi in the body syndromes. Main manifestations: abundant sweating, pale, apathy, fear of cold, cold limbs, unwilling to eat strong flavor, not thirsty or have lots of hot drinks, weak pulse that can hardly being felt.